Human Tissue Sample Blog

Tissue Microarray Applications for Colorectal Cancer

Posted by Luke Doiron on Oct 4, 2016 2:00:00 PM


“As long as one keeps searching, the answers come,” said the folk singer, Joan Baez. Patients with colon cancer and their caregivers are need of tumor biomarkers that can predict an outcome, assist diagnosis, and help in therapeutic management.

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What Diseases Tissue Microarrays Can Be Used For

Posted by Luke Doiron on Sep 22, 2016 10:00:00 AM


The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams, said Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States, 1932-1944. The science of the molecular biology of the gene is now more than 60 years old and in fact, the new goals and new dreams are just beginning.

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Preparation Procedures for Tissue Microarrays

Posted by Luke Doiron on Sep 15, 2016 9:00:00 AM


“One for all and all for one; that is our device,” wrote Alexandre Dumas over a hundred years ago in the famous novel, The Three Musketeers. The devotion to working together and teamwork is equally as critical in the present and bright future of new genomics technologies such as tissue microarray (TMA) devices.

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How to Measure Expression in Tissue Microarray Samples

Posted by Luke Doiron on Aug 23, 2016 8:00:00 AM


Tissue microarray technology is powerful. The technology yields gene expression profiles that are a window to tumor biology, oncology, and diagnostic test development (Shi et al, 2013). A microarray is defined as a supporting material onto which molecules or fragments of DNA or protein are attached in a regular pattern for use in biochemical or genetic analysis. Tissue microarrays (TMAs or tissue chips) are constructed of paraffin blocks comprising (up to 1,000) numerous discrete tissue cores assembled in array fashion for analysis by immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and mRNA in situ hybridization.

The genesis of the tissue microarray (TMA) technology two decades ago was the discovery by Battifora et al in 1986 of how 1 mm thick rods of different tissues could be wrapped in a sausage-like sheet of small intestine and embedded in paraffin to form a multitumor tissue block (MTTB). The technique was refined as an array in 1987, and although simultaneous assessment of many tissue specimens at the same time under the same conditions was now feasible, the inability to pinpoint the nature of each tissue specimen remained problematical. By 1998, Kononen et al had further refined TMA to permit rapid construction of microarrays and commercialization of the TMA device. The popularity of the TMA device continues to increase with commercial marketing, first by Beecher Instruments, and currently by Estigen Tissue Science.

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Recent Pharmacogenetic Research Using Tissue Microarray Samples

Posted by Luke Doiron on Jul 5, 2016 12:16:02 PM


Tissue microarrays (TMA) have emerged as an important tool for the development of diagnostics, therapeutics and for identifying novel protein markers and genes in normal versus disease state samples. The chips, which are comprised of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from various sources assembled on a single histology slide, provide a high-throughput platform for rapid analysis of gene or protein expression in different tissues. The TMA platform is suitable for various approaches including: immunohistochemistry (IHC); in situ hybridization (ISH); and in situ PCR assays. Perhaps the most valuable attribute of the high-quality TMA is the detailed annotation and clinical history that accompanies the tissue samples. This crucial information alongside consistent, optimal slide quality ensures the most accurate and comprehensive interpretation of results possible, and the implications of this tool for pharmacogenetic research are vast.

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